Have you ever noodled that as data flows from one system to another within an SOA, but the security model doesn't, that this is another attack vector? For example, what if I have access to data in a policy administration system such that I can figure out if you are insuring an auto that your wife doesn't know about but couldn't do the same in a claims administration system? I bet you can envision scenarios when you integrate a BPM engine with an ECM engine that security becomes weaker.
Absolutely... unfortunately, this is an amazingly difficult problem. Its not really the realm of ECM or BPM to solve it... rather, the best thing that we can do is not get in the way. Let the experts solve that one, and then integrate as well as possible with global policy management systems.
My suggestion is this:
- Implement a policy-based security model in your application (ECM/BPM).
- Loosely couple your application with an identity management system, so you can access a global security policy.
- Place extra hooks -- and allow people to "inject" new hooks -- that allow additional security callbacks to arbitrarily re-validate both credentials and access rights.
- Optionally, map the global policy and list of access rights to a policy more relevant to your application, and allow access by "local" users not in the global repository.
Most applications in the Oracle ECM stack follow this methodology... but I can't vouch for all Oracle applications. I like it, because its flexible enough to 'slave' yourself to an identity management system, and yet still have some local control over access rights if you want to 'boost' somebody's credentials.
I think it would be great if Oracle chose to augment this model to add support for a policy auditing standard... but I have no idea if anybody is asking for one, and if so, which one? I'm positive James has an opinion... I'm a fan of just using Business Intelligence to do the reporting, since (again) you can "sneak-in" better security along with the latest buzzword ;-)
Sub-optimal? Of course... but anything that makes security look less like a cost-center is good...
I also like the concept of Oracle's magic black box for identity services. That would make it easier for developers to create policy-based security models, that (in theory) would work with old, new, and emerging standards alike (XACML, CardSpace, OpenID, etc.). It's not that I don't like XACML, its simply that there are other horses in this race... and developers do not have the power to dictate architecture. We can suggest what works best, but in the end, the most sellable product will support them all.
I fully agree that #4 is a possible attack vector, which is why good access auditing and rights auditing tools are important... However, users frequently insist on local control of security rights, because there are many legitimate business cases where it isn't feasible to place all users in a global repository with the proper rights. Sometimes -- especially during mergers and acquisitions -- you want to keep the identities and access rights of these folks as secret as possible. Or, if your IT department has a 3-week waiting period for new users, but you need a contractor NOW for a 2 week project, guess what will happen?
I especially like how Oracle ECM implements #3... some of the more interesting aspects of the future of security involve multiple challenges for access. For example, assume a user has access to both mundane and highly restricted content, but her daily work is usually with the mundane. Now, at 7pm, she's suddenly accessing a ton of highly restricted content. Red flag! Even if her security tokens have not yet expired, a good security system would notice that this behavior is strange, and demand further authentication credentials... maybe the name of her first pet, or the manual-override PIN.
Anyway, Oracle ECM doesn't do any integrations like that as of yet, but it has the flexibility to do it... several identity management systems support that approach, and ECM is being positioned more and more as "infrastructure..." so I'd wager its only a matter of time.